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Pianist, conductor. Born in Moscow in the family of Jewish factory-owner Grigory Rubinstein (1835). Founded the Moscow branch of the Russian Musical Society (1860) and the Moscow Conservatoire (1866). Professor and director of the Moscow Conservatoire (1866–81). Conductor and soloist of the symphony and chamber concerts given by the Russian Musical Society in Moscow, St Petersburg and the provinces. Died in Paris and buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow (1881).