Beads were a popular female adornment before the Mongol invasion. They were made of coloured glass, painted clay, worked stones and precious and non-precious metals. Bead necklaces were both made in Russia and imported from Byzantium, Scandinavia and Asia. Distinguished townswomen wore splendid necklaces of gold and silver beads. Such works were often concealed in caches during times of war and enemy attacks.

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