River Fontanka

Source of the River Neva known as the Anonymous Creek (until 1712–14). Intersects the city centre. Flows out of the River Neva at the Summer Garden and back into it to the north of Gutuyev Island. So named because it was the source of water for the fountains in the Summer Garden. Southern boundary of the city (until mid-18th century). Banks lined with urban estates. First construction on the river was the Summer Palace of Peter the Great. Wooden embankments were erected (1720s) and the banks were levelled out (1762–69). Granite embankments, descents and approaches to the river were built by architect Andrei Kvasov and engineer Friedrich Wilhelm Bauer (1780–89). Giacomo Quarenghi designed the metal railings (1780–89). Ten bridges cross the river.

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